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Federal Buildings Walking Tour (Self Guided), Washington D.C.

Washington D.C. is a federal district and serves as the permanent capital of the United States. As such, it is filled with numerous buildings of federal importance, most of which are the nation's historic monuments too. This self-guided walk will tour you around the most vital federal buildings found in the downtown of Washington D.C.
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Federal Buildings Walking Tour Map

Guide Name: Federal Buildings Walking Tour
Guide Location: USA » Washington D.C. (See other walking tours in Washington D.C.)
Guide Type: Self-guided Walking Tour (Sightseeing)
# of Attractions: 10
Tour Duration: 2 Hour(s)
Travel Distance: 4.9 Km or 3 Miles
Author: clare
Sight(s) Featured in This Guide:
  • Supreme Court
  • Library of Congress
  • House of Representatives Office Buildings
  • U.S. Capitol
  • Federal Trade Commission
  • National Archives
  • Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice
  • Ronald Reagan Building
  • White House
  • Federal Reserve Board Building
1
Supreme Court

1) Supreme Court

The seat of the Supreme Court of the United States is situated on the block immediately east of the United States Capitol, and is under the jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol. On May 4, 1987, the Supreme Court Building was designated a National Historic Landmark.

Prior to the establishment of the Federal City, the United States government resided briefly in New York City. As such, the Supreme Court met there during that time in the Merchants Exchange Building. When the capital moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Court moved with it and began meeting in Independence Hall, before settling in the Old City Hall from 1791 until 1800.

After the federal government was established in Washington, the court was housed in a small basement room in the United States Capitol. It remained in the Capitol until 1935, with the exception of a period from 1812 to 1819, during which the Court was absent from Washington because of the British invasion and destruction of the Capitol in the War of 1812. In 1810, the Supreme Court first occupied the Old Supreme Court Chamber in the Capitol. In 1860, the Supreme Court moved to the Old Senate Chamber (as it is now known) where it remained until its move to the current Supreme Court building.

The Supreme Court Building was designed by architect Cass Gilbert. It rises four stories (92 ft (28 m)) above ground. The cornerstone was laid on October 13, 1932, and construction completed in 1935, having cost $94,000 under the $9.74 million budget authorized by Congress. "The building was designed on a scale in keeping with the importance and dignity of the Court and the Judiciary as a coequal, independent branch of the United States Government, and as a symbol of 'the national ideal of justice in the highest sphere of activity."

The public façade of the Supreme Court Building is made of marble quarried from Vermont, and that of the non-public-facing courtyards, Georgian marble. Most of the interior spaces are lined with Alabama marble, except for the Courtroom itself, which is lined with Spanish ivory vein marble. For the Courtroom's 24 columns, "Gilbert felt that only the ivory buff and golden marble from the Montarrenti quarries near Siena, Italy" would suffice.

The west façade of the building (essentially, the "front" of the court, being the side which faces the Capitol) bears the motto "Equal Justice Under Law," while the east façade bears the motto "Justice, the Guardian of Liberty."
Sight description based on wikipedia
2
Library of Congress

2) Library of Congress (must see)

The Library of Congress was established in 1800 by President John Adams. The mission was to provide books that would be needed by Congress to help them perform their duties. Thomas Jefferson reinforced the need for the Library and in 1802 signed a law that helped establish the Library’s structure and allowed the President and Vice-President to borrow books. The Library of Congress was destroyed when the Capitol was burned by British troops in 1814.

President Jefferson offered his personal library to replace the books destroyed by the fire. In 1815, Congress accepted the President’s offer and paid him around $24,000 for his collection of 6,487 books. Unfortunately, another fire in 1851 destroyed around 4,000 of the books that President Jefferson sent to the library along with another 31,000 volumes. The Smithsonian Institution, after some dissent about whether it should be in charge of the Library of Congress, transferred around 40,000 volumes to the Library in 1866.

Finally, serious expansion started, and the Library grew to 840,000 volumes by 1897. It was around this time that a sentiment developed that the Library should be a library for America. Assistance programs were set up to help those with physical disabilities have access to the books. In addition to books, the Library also houses manuscripts, sheet music, maps, sound recordings and films. It is an incredible collection.

Today, the Library of Congress has the largest collection of books and manuscripts in the world. Although it is a library for the people, only members of Congress, other high ranking officials, and Supreme Court Justices can check out books. However, anyone is free to use the books that are housed in three separate buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. The libraries are all connected by tunnels, so visitors only need to go through security once.

Why You Should Visit:
A world treasure that has one of the most beautiful building interiors in Washington, D.C. and worldwide!
There are permanent exhibits (first printed book – Gutenberg Bible from 1455) as well as temporary ones at any times.

Tip:
Definitely go online beforehand and register for your reader card; then, when you get there, just show your ID and the world of learning is open to you.
Tours are free and about an hour long. While you can see all the areas on the tour on your own, they are explained nicely by the tour guide.
There is a tunnel that connects the LoC and the US Capitol so you can view both without going outside.
If coming from the Capitol Building, you don't have to pass through the security check again (but if planning on visiting the Capitol Building from here, you will need to go through the security check, even if you came from this building before).

Opening Hours:
Mon-Sat: 8:30am-4:30pm
Sight description based on wikipedia
3
House of Representatives Office Buildings

3) House of Representatives Office Buildings

There are in total four buildings used by the United States House of Representatives as offices. After the initially allocated spaces at the US Capitol got very crowded, the first purpose-built property to relive pressure for office space was the Cannon House Office Building, located on the south side of the Capitol, connected to it by an underground passage. Completed in 1908, this was also crowded almost immediately, so the Representatives had to rent additional quarters to accommodate themselves.

Their second property, smallest of them all, is the Longworth House Office Building, completed in 1933, located south of the Capitol. This building has 251 congressional offices and suites, plus 12 committee rooms. There is a large assembly room that is currently used by the Ways and Means Committee. After its construction, the Cannon House Office Building was remodeled and the number of offices there dropped from 397 to 85 office suites, 23 committee rooms and 10 single room offices.

The Rayburn House Office Building is the newest, having been completed in 1965. Biggest of the Office Buildings, it houses 169 representatives. This building has an underground transportation system, called the Capital Subway System, that connects it to the Capitol. There is also a pedestrian tunnel that links all the Congressional Office Buildings on the Hill.
4
U.S. Capitol

4) U.S. Capitol (must see)

The United States Capitol stands at the opposite end of the National Mall from the Washington Monument. This huge building holds the House of Representatives in the south wing, and the Congress in the north wing. There are 540 rooms, five floors and the beautiful Capitol Rotunda which additionally houses art and sculptures. This artwork depicts events and figures from American history.

After much wrangling about the design, the Capitol cornerstone was laid by President Washington, who was dressed for the occasion in full Mason attire, on September 18, 1793. Completed in 1811, the Capitol was partially damaged in August 1814 during the burning of Washington in the course of the War of 1812. The burnt down portions were rebuilt and the Rotunda was added in 1826. In the 1850s the Capitol was expanded further with a new cast-iron dome added to replace the wooden Rotunda, following which several more renovations and expansions have been made. Among them is The Apotheosis of Washington fresco painted on the inside of the dome, visible through the oculus from the Rotunda floor.

The Capitol is open to visitors and offers free tour. Tickets are available at the Capitol Visitor Center on the first come-first served basis. This center is new, having opened in 2008. There is a 15-minute orientation film about the Capitol that is well worth viewing. A cafeteria, two gift shops, and restrooms are also available on site.

Visitors to the Capitol can watch Congress in action from designated galleries. Passes are available from the offices of Senators and Representatives. If visiting when Congress is in session, be sure to contact your local official and see government in action.

Tip:
First off, book your 45-min tour early to avoid missing out and to give yourself a bigger range of time slots.
You'll still have to go to the desk to pick up your ticket by showing the online receipt on your phone.
Get there 30-45 mins before your tour due to security checks before entry (food & drinks are prohibited).
Don't miss the opportunity to see the House of Reps and the Senate in action BUT you will need more passes AND if you are not American, you will need proper ID.
Overseas visitors apply for the passes at the Senate Appointment Desk and the House Appointment Desk inside the Capitol Building (pretty easy and quick to apply).
When you've finished your visit, use the tunnel just before the exit to go directly to the Library of Congress (no additional security check).
Interestingly, both the east side and the west side of the Capitol can be designated as the front, so just be aware that “front” is not the best descriptive designation here.

Opening Hours:
Daily: 8:30am-4:30pm
5
Federal Trade Commission

5) Federal Trade Commission

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) was established in 1914 by President Woodrow Wilson. Its main purpose is to protect American consumer, prevent monopolies, and to investigate antitrust issues. After moving to several different buildings, the FTC finally settled in the Apex building, completed in 1937, now commonly referred to as the Federal Trade Commission building. Its cornerstone was laid by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt using the same trowel that Washington had used when laying the cornerstone for the U.S. Capitol.

The commission is composed of five members nominated by President and confirmed by Senate. Commissioners are appointed to a seven year term and these terms are staggered so that there is no more than one vacancy appointed per year. However, the commissioners may retire before their term expires and that would necessitate a new appointment. There are never to be more than three members of the same political party sitting on the commission. In addition to protecting consumers and monitoring for unfair competition practices, the FTC is also tasked with providing expert knowledge regarding economic decisions the FTC makes. It was instrumental in the National Do Not Call Registry. It is also in charge of developing policies surrounding the Internet, such as fraud and privacy. The building is located at 600 Pennsylvania Ave NW.
6
National Archives

6) National Archives

The National Archives houses some of USA's most beloved document treasures. It is home to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights and the Declaration of Independence. These powerful documents, known as the Charters of Freedom, are housed in the Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom, being there on permanent display.

There are also public vaults that can be visited. These vaults hold over 1,000 records relating to the American democracy. Some of Abraham Lincoln’s telegrams that he sent to his generals are here, as well as handwritten notes by George Washington. There are an additional five vaults that take their names from the preamble to the Constitution and deal with law, citizenship, war, firsts and keeping records for future generations to take due note of.

The William G. McGowan Theater shows an informative film about the National Archives and another film on the Charters of Freedom. There are also various exhibits in the Lawrence F. O’Brian Gallery.

The National Archives and Records Administration is located at 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, between 7th and 9th streets. The Rotunda entrance is on Constitution Avenue. Admission is free, however, a ticket can be reserved during the busy tourist season. The cost of ticket is nonrefundable. The entrance for those with tickets is the special events door on Constitution Ave.

Opening Hours:
Monday-Sunday: 10:00 am – 5:30 pm
Sight description based on wikipedia
7
Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice

7) Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice

The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice building is one of the most recognizable edifices in Washington D.C. Trapezoidal in shape, it stands at the intersections of Pennsylvania Avenue, Constitution Avenue, 9th Street and 10th Street NW, and forms part of the Federal Triangle, being very close to the National Archives and the Internal Revenue Service Building. The physical address is 950 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, and you can get to the location quickly from the National Mall or the J. Edgar Hoover Building.

Back in the early 20th century, the Department of Justice needed a home and The United States also needed a place to house the Attorney General’s Office. The need was finally met in 1935. The architectural firm responsible for the design was Zantzinger, Borie and Medary of Philadelphia, PA who made good use of the modern Art Deco style that is seen in many of the buildings in the area. In addition to its unique shape, the building is also noted as a wonderful example of the so-called “Classical Revival” architectural style.

In 2001, the United States Congress passed legislation to rename the location after Robert F. Kennedy, who was the 64th Attorney General of the United States.
8
Ronald Reagan Building

8) Ronald Reagan Building

If you want to take in a site in Washington D.C. that is a bit more modern in nature, you may want to visit the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, located at 1300 Pennsylvania Ave NW, not far off the Federal Triangle.

This example of modern historical architecture houses many international businesses and conference space. Interestingly, the location has also become famous lately for holding wedding receptions. Among other amenities, it houses a first class food court and a wonderful Italian Restaurant, called Aria’s.

You may also want to visit the building on a day when the famous Capitol Steps Comedy troupe is performing, famous for their music and plays based on political satire. There are also many free outdoor music events held here throughout summer months.

The Ronald Reagan Building represents a first of a kind approach in federal buildings by housing both governmental offices and private sector businesses. Following the attack of 9/11, there has been some tightening of security in the building, though. Still, there is plenty of reason to go and visit this location during a trip to Washington D.C.
9
White House

9) White House (must see)

The White House address at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C. is both home and office of the American President, much as the symbol of the United States. While this is not the first home of American presidents, it has been the home of every American President since John Adams moved in here during his presidency in 1800. The design was made by James Hoban and the construction started with the laying of the cornerstone in 1792. Each president ever since has added their own touch to the people’s house, some big and some small.

The original White House was burned, almost to the ground, by British troops in 1814 during the War of 1812. Designing and rebuilding soon began and was finished by 1817. The South Portico was added in 1824 and the North Portico followed in 1830. The West Wing came during an addition in 1901 and then later the Oval Office was added. A fire of 1929 damaged the West Wing but the damage was repaired, and in the 1930s, a second story and basement were added, upon which the Oval Office was moved to its present location.

By 1948 the building was in need of a serious repair prompted by numerous additions made over the years. Load bearing beams were installed and a complete dismantling of the interior was undertaken. Sadly, most of the glorious handcrafted work was lost during that process. In the 1960s Jacqueline Kennedy oversaw another extensive redecoration of the White House whereby some of the artifacts, previously lost, were brought back and the building returned to its grander days.

Today, the White House has six stories, 132 rooms and various amenities including a tennis court, swimming pool, bowling alley and, of course, the First Garden. Following the attacks of 9/11, the White House is no longer open for tours, except on a very limited basis. All those wanting a tour must ask their Congressional representatives to put them on a list and have background checks completed prior to the visit.

Tip:
The entire tour is self-paced, so you might want to brush up on your White House history (War of 1812, etc) ahead of time, so as to maximize the experience. You will only be visiting the East Wing, so that will limit how much you need to research.
If you're you don't get a tour time, don't be heartbroken. Stand in front of the White House and take a group photo, then head over to the Visitor Center and use the interactive displays where you can see the same rooms.
Sight description based on wikipedia
10
Federal Reserve Board Building

10) Federal Reserve Board Building

The stately edifice on the corner of 20th Street and Constitution Avenue NW in Washington D.C. has been the home of the Federal Reserve Board since October 20, 1937. Dedicated by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, it stands to this day as an important contribution to American architectural history and design theory. Its architecture was quite daring for the time of the construction.

The architect, Paul Philippe Cret, who had studied art and design at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in France, used a bold, very modernistic interpretation of classic Beaux-Arts styling to come up with a unique view of the Federal Building. He kept the classical Beaux-Arts style in the columns, while went in a totally new direction with regards to the building’s ornamentation to attain a very clean and elegant look. The pragmatic classicism style is found in the marble ornaments that decorate the doorways, as well as in the design of the Federal Eagle that adorns the fireplace in the board room.

Following an Act of Congress of 1982, the Federal Reserve Board building has been named after of one of its former chairmen, Marriner S. Eccles.

Walking Tours in Washington D.C., USA

Create Your Own Walk in Washington D.C.

Create Your Own Walk in Washington D.C.

Creating your own self-guided walk in Washington D.C. is easy and fun. Choose the city attractions that you want to see and a walk route map will be created just for you. You can even set your hotel as the start point of the walk.
Arlington National Cemetery Tour

Arlington National Cemetery Tour

The largest military cemetery in the U.S., Arlington National Cemetery is the final resting place for more than 400,000 veterans from the fronts of Iraq and Afghanistan, World Wars I and II, the Korean conflict, Vietnam, the Cold War and America’s Civil War. Open 365 days a year with free admission, it is visited by more than four million people each year, and conducts between 27 and 30 funerals...  view more

Tour Duration: 2 Hour(s)
Travel Distance: 4.1 Km or 2.5 Miles
Georgetown Walking Tour

Georgetown Walking Tour

Georgetown is an area located in the northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C., along the Potomac River waterfront. Despite its proximity to downtown Washington, this former port has preserved its own distinct character. Many of the buildings along the tree-lined streets here are over 200 years old. Take this walking tour to reveal some of the cute secrets of this part of the U.S. capital.

Tour Duration: 2 Hour(s)
Travel Distance: 2.7 Km or 1.7 Miles
Washington D.C. Introduction Walk

Washington D.C. Introduction Walk

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia or simply The District, is the capital of the United States and, in many senses, America’s front yard. After the American Revolution, the need for the newly independent nation's federal government to have authority over a capital city and not rely on any state for its maintenance and safety, came in the wake of the Pennsylvania Mutiny of...  view more

Tour Duration: 2 Hour(s)
Travel Distance: 5.2 Km or 3.2 Miles
DC Museums Tour

DC Museums Tour

Washington D.C. is well-known for its world-class museums. The Smithsonian Institution, the largest museum complex in the world, maintains most of the official museums in Washington, D.C. and the entrance is free of charge. Explore some the outstanding museums in D.C. by taking this self guided walking tour.

Tour Duration: 2 Hour(s)
Travel Distance: 4.2 Km or 2.6 Miles
DC Monuments and Memorials Walking Tour

DC Monuments and Memorials Walking Tour

Washington D.C. is a city of historic memorials and monuments that commemorate key chapters in American history. They are dedicated to all the noteworthy generals, politicians, statesmen and artists who played a major role in shaping the American nation. This walking tour will offer you a glimpse into the history of the U.S.

Tour Duration: 2 Hour(s)
Travel Distance: 3.8 Km or 2.4 Miles

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