Historical Houses Walking Tour, Quebec City

Historical Houses Walking Tour (Self Guided), Quebec City

Often referred to as the cradle of New France, Québec City has one of the richest architectural heritages in North America and is particularly evocative of Europe in its atmosphere. Most of the city's architecture, however, had to be adapted to harsh winters and the lack of specialized workers and materials in the colony; as such, most houses were designed as simple and efficient before anything else. While not overly extravagant, the more developed buildings in this walk stand out among the rest, and will give you a wonderful glimpse into the lives of several pioneers of Canadian civilization.
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Historical Houses Walking Tour Map

Guide Name: Historical Houses Walking Tour
Guide Location: Canada » Quebec City (See other walking tours in Quebec City)
Guide Type: Self-guided Walking Tour (Sightseeing)
# of Attractions: 8
Tour Duration: 2 Hour(s)
Travel Distance: 2.5 Km or 1.6 Miles
Author: susan
Sight(s) Featured in This Guide:
  • Chevalier House (Maison Chevalier)
  • Louis Jolliet House (Maison Louis Jolliet)
  • Maillou House (Maison Maillou)
  • Duke of Kent House (Maison Kent)
  • Tetu House (Maison Tetu)
  • Sewell House (Maison Sewell)
  • Louis S. St. Laurent Heritage House
  • Henry-Stuart House National Historic Site
Chevalier House (Maison Chevalier)

1) Chevalier House (Maison Chevalier)

The historic Chevalier house (Maison historique Chevalier) is a classical piece of French urban architecture in New France.

The structure incorporates three separate buildings from three distinctive periods. In the centre is the former home of the shipowner Jean-Baptiste Chevalier (Maison de l'Armateur Chevalier) built in 1752, twinned with the neighboring mansard house Frérot (Maison Frérot) built in 1683 or 1695, and the Chesnay House (Maison Chesnay) dating back to 1660 or 1675.

All three houses were destroyed by fire and then rebuilt in 1762. The entire complex was partially remodeled following the British Conquest of the territory and used for commercial purposes. From 1807, the property was rented to an innkeeper who called it London Coffee House, by which name it was known until the early 20th century.

During the 1950s, the buildings escaped demolition after being purchased by the government of Quebec as part of the major restoration project in the Royal Square area. In 1965, the complex was classified as a historic monument and turned into a museum.

With the Frontenac Castle's top showing in the background, the Chevalier House makes a good photo op for an architecture buff as it encapsulates much of the area's historic heritage. During the Quebec Carnival in February, it is also often used for traditional music evenings.
Sight description based on Wikipedia.
Louis Jolliet House (Maison Louis Jolliet)

2) Louis Jolliet House (Maison Louis Jolliet)

The historic Louis Jolliet House, at 16 Petit-Champlain Street, today serves as the main entrance to the Old Quebec funicular. Designed by architect Claude Baillif, this was one of the earliest residences in Old Quebec built a year after the great fire of 1682.

The fire, which had almost completely razed the Lower Town, eventually prompted the authorities to require that all buildings be made of stone and fitted with firewalls. Among other things, this decision resulted in the spread of the first suburbs outside the city walls since poorer settlers could not meet the new costly requirements and were thus forced to move out.

The owner of the house, Louis Jolliet, an explorer, cartographer and hydrographer, lived here until his death in 1700. He was the first Quebec-born Canadian to make history. During one of his expeditions, Jolliet discovered and mapped the Mississippi River, being the first person of European parentage to accomplish such a feat.

Heavily damaged during the British Conquest and by a number of fires that happened later on, the house underwent several transformations that have reduced its state of authenticity. Nonetheless, some of its original features, attributing to the urban architecture of the French Colonial period, have survived.

The commanding location – at the top of Sous-le-Fort street – gives this property a privileged place in the urban landscape and, together with the access to the funicular, adds more value to it in the eyes of multiple visitors. As of 1985, the building has been an integral part of the Old Quebec UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Maillou House (Maison Maillou)

3) Maillou House (Maison Maillou)

Located at 17 Saint-Louis Street in the historic district of Old Québec, this building was built around 1737 by Jean-Baptiste Maillou – one of the French regime's most prominent landowners and masonry contractors. It took on the appearance we know today after an upper storey was added in 1767 and an extension was built in 1799.

In 1815, the residence became the property of the British Army. During this period, it housed the commissariat and treasury, and accommodated senior officers until the troops left in 1871. After that time, the federal government took possession of the building, which notably became the headquarters for the militia and army for almost 60 years. Note the metal shutters used to thwart weather and unfriendly fire.

While access to the site is restricted, the courtyard and the outbuildings, where a restaurant is located, are accessible to the general public. A pamphlet and commemorative plaque provide the houses' history.
Duke of Kent House (Maison Kent)

4) Duke of Kent House (Maison Kent)

Built in the mid-17th century (1648) by the Chartier de Lotbiniere family, this might be Québec's oldest building. It's most famous for being the house in which France signed the 1759 capitulation to the British forces. Ironically, the house was occupied by France Consulate General before being turned into a tourist lodging. Its name comes from the Duke of Kent, Queen Victoria's father, who lived here for a few years at the end of the 18th century, just prior to marrying Victoria's mother in an arranged liaison. His true love, Madame de Saint Laurent, was with him in Maison Kent, which has since underwent a number of renovations.
Tetu House (Maison Tetu)

5) Tetu House (Maison Tetu)

The Maison Têtu is a particularly elaborate example of the many large, urban town houses built for prosperous Canadian merchants during the mid-19th century. It was designed in 1852 by Charles Baillairgé, a member of a celebrated family of architects who, beginning in the 18th century, left an important mark on the architecture of Québec City and its surroundings.

The house's Greek Revival facade, a masterpiece of the genre, is tastefully decorated with palmettes and discreet laurel wreaths. The main floor has huge bay windows that open onto a single expansive living room in the London style. From the time of its construction, the house incorporated all the modern amenities: central heating, hot running water and multiple bathrooms. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, author of "The Little Prince", was hosted here by the De Koninck family in the early 1940s.
Sewell House (Maison Sewell)

6) Sewell House (Maison Sewell)

Built in 1803-1804 and inspired by British Classicism, the Jonathan Sewell House illustrates early 19th-century development in Québec's upper middle-class settlement of Upper Town. The original owner, a lawyer, was appointed Solicitor General and Attorney General of Lower Canada before becoming Chief Justice and Chairman of the Executive Council in 1808. The Sewells had 16 children who were educated here, but the home was also known for hosting political debates.

In the early decades of the 19th century, the construction of dwellings for Anglophone elites introduced a new architectural vocabulary that included neoclassical elements such as symmetrical openings, low-pitched roofs, and a restrained appearance. The Sewell House's architectural character, as well as its well-crafted ashlar masonry construction, mirrors the penchant for British classical design so evident in nearby military buildings.

The property's official recognition also refers to the adjoining buildings, including the Saint-Louis barracks at the rear, and the Squash Ball Court, former workshop, garages and warehouse, built in different eras along the property's west border.
Louis S. St. Laurent Heritage House

7) Louis S. St. Laurent Heritage House

This elegant building was the home of Louis S. St. Laurent, Prime Minister of Canada from 1948 to 1957, who lived in it until his death in 1973. After a brilliant career of over 35 years as a lawyer, he was appointed as Minister of Justice in 1941 and elected as Member of Parliament the following year. As Prime Minister, his constitutional expertise, his achievements on the international scene, and his social and economic policies transformed Canada into a modern nation that soon became a full member of the United Nations, NATO and the new Commonwealth.

Due to its historical and architectural importance, as well as the environmentally privileged place it occupies, the house's heritage value was officially recognized in 2001. While the exterior evokes the cubism of early 20th-century "Four Square" houses, the interior plan and finish clearly reflect the former occupants' professional status, including the high-quality woodwork and fireplaces. Further illustrating the lifestyle of high-class families in 1950s Québec City are period furnishings, costumed guides, and several multimedia touches.
Henry-Stuart House National Historic Site

8) Henry-Stuart House National Historic Site

Take afternoon tea and cake in this charmingly authentic 19th-century cottage – one of the few remaining Regency-style Anglo-Norman cottages around. This type of colonial British architecture is distinguished by a large pavilion roof overhanging a low veranda surrounding the building.

Built in 1849 for Mrs. William Henry, the wife of a rich wood merchant, the house – which once used to mark the border between city and country – is now found on one of the biggest boulevards, but inside it has retained its elegant and rich decor. There are only a few rooms to visit, but the collection they house is amazing, with actual items that the Stuart family owned and used. Tours of the building and the original garden give visitors an idea of what life was like for well-to-do English families in Québec at the turn of the 20th century, as well as of how quickly the world has changed.

It's also lovely to have lemon cake and tea on the veranda at the end of the hour-long tour!

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